EES401: Quantitative data analysis in earth and environmental sciences
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:1,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Data
types
binary
data
(absence
present
data),
integer
data
(abundance
data),
univariate
and
multivariate
measurement
data,
geospatially
data,
time
series
data,
spatiotemporal
data.
Uncertainty
and
error
propagation.
Univariate
Data
analysis:
Descriptive
statistics
(Mean,
Variance,
Standard
deviation),
Robust
statistics
(Median,
Quarter
values,
Median
Median
Deviation),
Skewness,
Kurtosis.
Statistical
tests
for
normal
distributed
datasets
(F
test,
ttest,
Welch
test),
Tests
for
paired
data
(t,
sign,
Wilcoxon),
tests
for
equal
coefficient
of
variation.
Statistical
tests
for
environmental
datasets
that
are
not
normal
distributed
(MannWhitney
test
and
Friedman
test
for
equality
of
median,
KolmogorovSmirnov
for
equal
distribution.
Multivariate
Data
analysis:
ANOVA
and
KruskalWallis
test,
Levene’s
test
for
homogeneity
of
variance,
unequalvariance
(Welch)
version
of
ANOVA,
ANCOVA
(Analysis
of
covariance),
ANOSIM
(Analysis
of
Similarity),
Principle
Component
Analysis,
Principle
Coordinate
Analysis,
Positive
Matrix
Factorisation,
Chemical
Mass
Balance
Modelling,
Correspondence
Analysis,
detrended
correspondence
analysis,
canonical
correspondence
analysis,
Cluster
Analysis,
Regression
analysis
(Linear,
Polynomial,
Sinosoidal).
Time
series
analysis,
spectral
analysis,
autocorrelation,
cross
correlation,
autoassociation,
wavelet
transform,
diel
and
seasonal
cycles,
Intervention
analysis,
trend
analysis
of
cyclic
data.
Analysis
of
Geospatial
data,
Direction
data,
polar
plots,
rose
plots,
nearest
neighbour
point
pattern,
spatial
autocorrelation
and
spatial
interpolation,
splines
and
warps.
Receptor
modelling
in
atmospheric
sciences:
back
trajectory
analysis,
conditional
probability
and
concentration
weighted
trajectories,
wind
roses
and
pollution
roses.
Spatiotemporal
data:
polar
annulus
plots.
Recommended Reading
Ronald
E.
Walpole
and
Raymond
H.
Myers,
ProbabilityandStatisticsforEngineersandScientists(9thEdition).
Hammer,
O.
&
D.
Harper.
2006.
PaleontologicalDataAnalysis
Wiley.
Software
tools
PAST
R
Openair
PanMap
EES636: The quarternary periodenvironments, animals adaptations during the last 2.5
million years
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:0,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Pleistocene
and
Holocene;
geological
and
environmental
change;
major
climatic
oscillations
(e.g.
Milankovitch
cycles;
glacial
interglacials;
monsoons)
Vertebrate
speciation
events
including
the
genus
Homo;
subsequent
dispersals
and
adaptations
Environmental
reconstructions
using
proxy
data
(e.g.
pollen
records,
deep
sea
core
records,
fossil
records,
stable
isotope
(carbon,
oxygen,
nitrogen)
Multidisciplinary
case
studies
(e.g.
aridity,
sea
level
changes,
floods)
Ecological
roles
in
the
rise
and
decline
of
complex
societies
(e.g.
Harappans,
Mayans,
Mesopotamians);
advent
of
agriculture
and
domestication
Methods
in
Quaternary
studies
(e.g.
stratigraphy,
geomorphology,
geochronology,
paleontology,
palaeobotany)
Major
debates
in
Quaternary
studies
(e.g.
faunal
overkill;
Toba
supereruption)
Additionalcourseactivities
Geological
fieldtrips
to
show
examples
of
Quaternary
change
and
associated
proxy
records
Book
chapters
and
journal
articles,
(e.g.QuaternaryInternational,JournalofQuaternaryStudies,QuaternaryGeochronology,QuaternaryResearch,QuaternaryScienceReviews,Paleo3)
EES637: Introduction to aeronomy
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:1,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Neutral
atmosphere
Structure
of
the
atmosphere
Physics
and
Chemistry
of
the
mesosphere
and
thermosphere
Airglow
Winds
and
waves
Formation
of
the
ionosphere
Ionosphere
Layering
into
the
D,
E
and
F
regions
Topside
ionosphere
Conductivities
Current
systems:
EEJ,
Sq
and
AEJ
Equatorial
ionization
anomaly
Ionospheric
instabilities
in
the
Eregion
instabilities
in
the
Fregion
Midnight
temperature
maximum
and
Fregion
collapse
Magnetosphere
Magnetosphere
above
the
ionosphere
Magnetopause
Geomagnetic
tail
Plasma
and
neutral
sheets
Radiation
belts
Plasmasphere
Reconnection
and
interaction
of
solar
wind
plasma
Geomagnetic
disturbances
Aurorae
Disturbance
effects
in
the
ionospherethermosphere
system
Broad
perspective
Overview
of
ionospheres
and
magnetospheres
of
other
planets
Recommended Reading
J.
K.
Hargreaves,
TheSolarTerrestrialEnvironment,
Cambridge
University
Press
R.
Schunk,
A.
Nagy,
Ionospheres,
Cambridge
University
Press
M.
G.
Kivelson,
C.
T.
Russell,
IntroductiontoSpacePhysics,
Cambridge
University
Press
M.
C.
Kelley,
TheEarthsIonosphere,
Academic
Press
H.
Rishbeth,
O.
K.
Garriot,
IntroductiontoIonosphericPhysics,
Academic
Press
M.
H.
Rees,
PhysicsandChemistryoftheUpperAtmosphere,
Cambridge
University
Press
Y.
Kamide,
A.
Chian
(Eds),
HandbookofSolarTerrestrialEnvironment,
SpringerVerlag
EES638: Paleoclimatology
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:1,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Components
of
the
earth’s
climate
system;
causes,
controls
and
feedback
mechanisms
of
the
climate
system.
The
Indian
monsoon;
monsoon
and
global
teleconnections;
decadal
and
interannual
variability
of
the
Indian
monsoon.
Introduction
to
paleoclimatology;
terrestrial
and
marine
archives
of
past
climate
change;
dating
paleoclimatic
archives;
methodological
approaches
and
proxies
used
in
climate
research.
Overview
of
Earths
longterm
climate
history;
Climate
change
hypotheses
&
major
climatic
events
starting
with
formation
of
the
atmosphere;
Oceans
and
climate
change.
Orbital
Changes
&
Ice
Age
climates;
Quaternary
and
Holocene
climates;
Climate
change
during
the
last
millennium;
Insolation
control
of
monsoons
and
ice
sheets.
Human
civilizations
and
climate
change;
projections
for
future
climate
change.
Recommended Reading
W.
F.
Ruddiman.
Earth’sClimate:pastandfuture,
W.H.
Freeman
&
Son,
2nd
edition
(2008).
T.
M
Cronin,Paleoclimates:understandingclimatechangepastandpresent,
Columbia
University
Press
(2009).
B.
Wang,TheAsianmonsoon,
Springer
Science
&
Business
Media
(2006).
EES639: Space weather
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:1,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Solaractivity:
Solar
interior

solar
atmosphere

corona

solar
wind

solar
rotation

sunspots
and
solar
cycle

interplanetary
magnetic
field

heliosphere
prominences,
filaments
and
plages

solar
flares

coronal
mass
ejections

coronal
holes.
Geospace:
Structure
of
earth

atmosphere

atmospheric
waves

ionosphere

geomagnetic
field

ionospheric
conductivity
and
currents

important
features
of
ionosphere

plasmasphere

radiation
belts

bowshock

magnetopause

magnetosheath

cusp

magnetotail

plasma
and
neutral
sheets

magnetospheric
current
systems.
Solarterrestrialinteractions:
Solar
cycle
impacts
on
atmosphere
and
ionosphere

magnetic
reconnections

geomagnetic
storms
substorms
and
aurorae

thermospheric
disturbances

ionospheric
storms
and
disturbances

effects
in
the
middle
atmosphere.
Societalimpactsandprediction:
Satellite
lifetimes

satellite
charging

energetic
particle
impacts
and
implications
for
space
travel

radio
propagation
hindrances

ground
induced
currents
and
effects
on
electrical
lines

induction
effects
in
oil
pipelines

probable
effects
on
living
beings

prediction
capabilities.
Recommended Reading
W.
H.
Campbell,
IntroductiontoGeomagneticFields,
Cambridge
University
Press,
2003.
J.
K.
Hargreaves,TheSolarTerrestrialEnvironment,
Cambridge
University
Press,
1992.
M.
Moldwin,
AnintroductiontoSpaceWeather,
Cambridge
University
Press,
2008.
Y.
Kamide,
A.
Chian
(Eds),HandbookofSolarTerrestrialEnvironment,
SpringerVerlag,
2007.
M.
G.
Kivelson,
C.
T.
Russell,
IntroductiontoSpacePhysics,
Cambridge
University
Press,
1995.
G.
K.
Parks,
PhysicsofSpacePlasmasAnIntroduction,
Westview
Press,
2004.
A.
S.
Jursa
(Ed),
HandbookofGeophysicsandtheSpaceEnvironment,
Air
Force
Geophysics
Laboratory,
1985.
W.
Baumjohann,
R.
A.
Treumann,
BasicSpacePlasmaPhysics,
Imperial
College
Press,
1997.
EES640: Global tectonics
[Cr:4,Lc:3,Tt:1,Lb:0]
Course Outline
Introduction:
Earth
and
its
early
history.
Differentiation
of
earth
into
crust,
mantle
and
core,
Internal
structure
of
the
Earth.
Plate
Tectonics:
Development
of
theory
of
plate
tectonics.
Mechanism
of
platetectonics:
Mantle
convection,
The
forces
acting
on
plates.
Plate
boundary
processes:
Spreading
centers,
subduction
zones,
collision
zones
and
transform
faults.
Physiography,
structure,
magmatism,
metamorphism
and
sedimentation
along
plate
boundaries.
Origin
and
evolution
of
land:
Origin
and
evolution
of
continentalcrust.
Supercontinent
cycles.
Recommended Reading
Kearey,
P.,
Klepeis,
K.A.
and
Vine,
F.J.
GlobalTectonics,
(Third
Edition).
WileyBlackwell,
John
Wiley
and
Sons
Ltd.,
UK
(2007).
Windley,
B.F.,
Theevolvingcontinents,
John
Wiley
&
Sons
(1995).
Molnar,
P.,
PlateTectonics,Averyshortintroduction,
Oxford
University
Press
(2015).
Introduction
and
basis
of
radiogenic
isotope
geology:
Scope
of
radiogenic
isotope
geology.
Discovery
of
radioactivity
and
historical
development
of
the
subject.
Nuclear
structure.
Theory
and
mechanism
of
decay,
particles
emitted,
growth
and
retention
of
daughter
isotopes
in
earth
systems.
Mass
spectrometery
and
laboratory
methods.
Geochronology:
Methods
of
dating.
Radio
Isotope
systematic
KAr,
^{40}Ar^{39}Ar,
RbSr,
SmNd,
LuHf,
ReOs,
UThPb
and
others.
Cosmogenic
radionuclides.
Shortlived
and
extinct
radionuclides
and
early
Earth
and
Solar
system
processes.
Geological
processes:
Radioactive
and
radiogenic
elements
as
major,
minor
and
trace
elements
and
their
geochemical
behaviour.
Applications
of
radioisotope
systematic
in
geochemistry.
Petrogenesis
of
Igneous,
Metamorphic,
and
Sedimentary
Rocks.
surface
processes.
Recommended Reading
Dickin,
A.P.,
RadiogenicIsotopeGeology,
(Second
Edition).
Cambridge
University
Press
(2005).
Allegre,
C.
J.,
IsotopeGeology,
Cambridge
University
Press
(2008).
Faure,
G.
and
Teresa
M.
Mensing,
Isotopes:PrinciplesandApplications,
(Third
Edition)
John
Wiley
&
sons
(2005).